Now, import the following files in order to view and customize your simple new app.
Now, create a new custom folder and import the following Components:
Styling Your App
Change the styling of your new app by editing the variables.scss.
Customize the font color and add custom styling using SASS.
See it in Action
Finally, use the sandbox text editor to see your app in action.
Start customizing the new app to make yours, and save your file by integrating with Github.
View the live app
Learn About Vue and Sass
What is Vue?
What is Sass?
What is Vue?
What exactly is Vue?
Vue is a progressive framework for building user interfaces. Additionally, Vue is also an incrementally adoptable ecosystem that scales between a library and a full-featured framework.
How does view Perform?
Both React and Vue are exceptionally and similarly fast, so speed is unlikely to be a deciding factor in choosing between them.
For specific metrics though, check out this 3rd party benchmark, which focuses on raw render/update performance with very simple component trees.
What is Sass?
The new main syntax (as of Sass 3) is known as “SCSS” (for “Sassy CSS”), and is a superset of CSS3’s syntax. This means that every valid CSS3 stylesheet is valid SCSS as well. SCSS files use the extension .scss.
The Open Graph protocol enables any web page to become a rich object in a social graph. For example, this is used on Facebook to allow any web page to have the same functionality as any other object on Facebook.
Metadata – The Open Graph Protocol
To turn your web pages into graph objects, you need to add basic metadata to your page. We’ve based the initial version of the protocol on RDFa which means that you’ll place additional <meta> tags in the <head> of your web page. The four required properties for every page are:
og:title – The title of your object as it should appear within the graph, e.g., “The Movie”.
og:type – The type of your object, e.g., “video.movie”. Depending on the type you specify, other properties may also be required.
og:image – An image URL which should represent your object within the graph.
og:url – The canonical URL of your object that will be used as its permanent ID in the graph, e.g., “http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0117500/”.
As an example, the following is the Open Graph protocol markup for The Rock on IMDB:
Some properties can have extra metadata attached to them. These are specified in the same way as other metadata with property and content, but the property will have extra :.
The og:image property has some optional structured properties:
og:image:url – Identical to og:image.
og:image:secure_url – An alternate url to use if the webpage requires HTTPS.
og:image:type – A MIME type for this image.
og:image:width – The number of pixels wide.
og:image:height – The number of pixels high.
og:image:alt – A description of what is in the image (not a caption). If the page specifies an og:image it should specify
Full Image Example:
The following properties are optional for any object and are generally recommended:
og:audio – A URL to an audio file to accompany this object.
og:description – A one to two sentence description of your object.
og:determiner – The word that appears before this object’s title in a sentence. An enum of (a, an, the, “”, auto). If auto is chosen, the consumer of your data should chose between “a” or “an”. Default is “” (blank).
og:locale – The locale these tags are marked up in. Of the format language_TERRITORY. Default is en_US.
og:locale:alternate – An array of other locales this page is available in.
og:site_name – If your object is part of a larger web site, the name which should be displayed for the overall site. e.g., “IMDb”.
og:video – A URL to a video file that complements this object.
For example (line-break solely for display purposes):
Put structured properties after you declare their root tag. Whenever another root element is parsed, that structured property is considered to be done and another one is started.
This means there are 3 images on this page, the first image is 300×300, the middle one has unspecified dimensions, and the last one is 1000px tall.
In order for your object to be represented within the graph, you need to specify its type. This is done using the og:type property:
When the community agrees on the schema for a type, it is added to the list of global types. All other objects in the type system are CURIEs of the form.
The global types are grouped into verticals. Each vertical has its own namespace. The og:type values for a namespace are always prefixed with the namespace and then a period. This is to reduce confusion with user-defined name-spaced types which always have colons in them.
Namespace URI: http://ogp.me/ns/music#
music:duration – integer >=1 – The song’s length in seconds.
music:album – music.album array – The album this song is from.
music:album:disc – integer >=1 – Which disc of the album this song is on.
music:album:track – integer >=1 – Which track this song is.
music:musician – profile array – The musician that made this song.
music:song – music.song – The song on this album.
music:song:disc – integer >=1 – The same as music:album:disc but in reverse.
music:song:track – integer >=1 – The same as music:album:track but in reverse.
music:musician – profile – The musician that made this song.
music:release_date – datetime – The date the album was released.
music:song – Identical to the ones on music.album
music:creator – profile – The creator of this playlist.
music:creator – profile – The creator of this station.
Namespace URI: http://ogp.me/ns/video#
video:actor – profile array – Actors in the movie.
video:actor:role – string – The role they played.
video:director – profile array – Directors of the movie.
video:writer – profile array – Writers of the movie.
video:duration – integer >=1 – The movie’s length in seconds.
video:release_date – datetime – The date the movie was released.
video:tag – string array – Tag words associated with this movie.
video:actor – Identical to video.movie
video:series – video.tv_show – Which series this episode belongs to.
A multi-episode TV show. The metadata is identical to video.movie.
A video that doesn’t belong in any other category. The metadata is identical to video.movie.
These are globally defined objects that just don’t fit into a vertical but yet are broadly used and agreed upon.
First, Download the Node.js source code or a pre-built installer for your platform, and start developing today. Download Node.
How do I start with Node.js after installing it?
Getting Started Guide
Once you have installed Node, let’s try building our first web server. Create a file named “app.js”, and paste the following code:
After that, run your web server using node app.js, visit http://localhost:3000, and you will see a message ‘Hello World’.
This guide will help you get started debugging your Node.js apps and scripts.
When started with the –inspect switch, a Node.js process listens via WebSockets for diagnostic commands as defined by the Inspector Protocol, by default at host and port 127.0.0.1:9229.
Each process is also assigned a unique UUID (e.g. 0f2c936f-b1cd-4ac9-aab3-f63b0f33d55e ).
Inspector clients must know and specify host address, port, and UUID to connect to the WebSocket interface.
The full URL is ws://127.0.0.1:9229/0f2c936f-b1cd-4ac9-aab3-f63b0f33d55e , of course dependent on actual host and port and with the correct UUID for the instance.
Inspector also includes an HTTP endpoint to serve metadata about the debuggee, including its WebSocket URL, UUID, and Chrome DevTools URL.
Get this metadata by sending an HTTP request to http://[host:port]/json/list . This returns a JSON object like the following; use the webSocketDebuggerUrl property as the URL to connect directly to Inspector.
A Node.js process started without–inspect can also be instructed to start listening for debugging messages by signaling it with SIGUSR1 (on Linux and OS X).
As of Node 7 this activates the legacy Debugger API; in Node 8 and later it will activate the Inspector API.
Enabling remote debugging scenarios
It’s recommended that you never have the debugger listen on a public IP address. If you need to allow remote debugging connections we recommend the use of ssh tunnels instead. We provide the following example for illustrative purposes only.
Please understand the security risk of allowing remote access to a privileged service before proceeding.
Let’s say you are running Node on remote machine, remote.example.com, that you want to be able to debug. On that machine, you should start the node process with the inspector listening only to localhost (the default).
$ node --inspect server.js
Now, on your local machine from where you want to initiate a debug client connection, you can setup an ssh tunnel:
This starts a ssh tunnel session where a connection to port 9221 on your local machine will be forwarded to port 9229 on remote.example.com.
You can now attach a debugger such as Chrome DevTools or Visual Studio Code to localhost:9221, which should be able to debug as if the Node.js application was running locally.
Debug your Node.js app with Chrome DevTools by using an intermediary process which translates the Inspector Protocol used in Chromium to the V8 Debugger protocol used in Node.js.
Learn Easy profiling for Node.js Applications
The built-in profiler uses the profiler inside V8 which samples the stack at regular intervals during program execution. It records the results of these samples, along with important optimization events such as jit compiles, as a series of ticks:
In the past you need the V8 source code to be able to interpret the ticks. Luckily, tools have recently been introduced into Node.js 4.4.0 that facilitate the consumption of this information without separately building V8 from source. Let’s see how the built-in profiler can help provide insight into application performance.
To illustrate the use of the tick profiler, we will work with a simple Express application. Our application will have two handlers, one for adding new users to our system:
and another for validating user authentication attempts:
Please note that these are NOT recommended handlers for authenticating users in your Node.js applications and are used purely for illustration purposes. You should not be trying to design your own cryptographic authentication mechanisms in general. It is much better to use existing, proven authentication solutions.
Now assume that we’ve deployed our application and users are complaining about high latency on requests. We can easily run the app with the built in profiler:
NODE_ENV=production node --prof app.js
and put some load on the server using ab (ApacheBench):
curl -X GET "http://localhost:8080/newUser?username=matt&password=password"
ab -k -c 20 -n 250 "http://localhost:8080/auth?username=matt&password=password"
and get an ab output of:
Concurrency Level: 20
Time taken for tests: 46.932 seconds
Complete requests: 250
Failed requests: 0
Keep-Alive requests: 250
Total transferred: 50250 bytes
HTML transferred: 500 bytes
Requests per second: 5.33 [#/sec] (mean)
Time per request: 3754.556 [ms] (mean)
Time per request: 187.728 [ms] (mean, across all concurrent requests)
Transfer rate: 1.05 [Kbytes/sec] received
Percentage of the requests served within a certain time (ms)
100% 4225 (longest request)
From this output, we see that we’re only managing to serve about 5 requests per second and that the average request takes just under 4 seconds round trip.
In a real world example, we could be doing lots of work in many functions on behalf of a user request but even in our simple example, time could be lost compiling regular expressions, generating random salts, generating unique hashes from user passwords, or inside the Express framework itself.
Since we ran our application using the –prof option, a tick file was generated in the same directory as your local run of the application. It should have the form isolate-0xnnnnnnnnnnnn-v8.log (where n is a digit).
In order to make sense of this file, we need to use the tick processor bundled with the Node.js binary. To run the processor, use the –prof-process flag:
Opening processed.txt in your favorite text editor will give you a few different types of information. The file is broken up into sections which are again broken up by language. First, we look at the summary section and see:
With this in mind, we next find the [C++] section which contains information about which C++ functions are taking the most CPU time and see:
ticks total nonlib name
19557 51.8% 52.9% node::crypto::PBKDF2(v8::FunctionCallbackInfo const&)
4510 11.9% 12.2% _sha1_block_data_order
3165 8.4% 8.6% _malloc_zone_malloc
We see that the top 3 entries account for 72.1% of CPU time taken by the program. From this output, we immediately see that at least 51.8% of CPU time is taken up by a function called PBKDF2 which corresponds to our hash generation from a user’s password.
However, it may not be immediately obvious how the lower two entries factor into our application (or if it is we will pretend otherwise for the sake of example).
To better understand the relationship between these functions, we will next look at the [Bottom up (heavy) profile] section which provides information about the primary callers of each function. Examining this section, we find:
Parsing this section takes a little more work than the raw tick counts above. Within each of the “call stacks” above, the percentage in the parent column tells you the percentage of samples for which the function in the row above was called by the function in the current row.
For example, in the middle “call stack” above for sha1block_data_order , we see that _sha1_block_data_order occurred in 11.9% of samples, which we knew from the raw counts above.
However, here, we can also tell that it was always called by the pbkdf2 function inside the Node.js crypto module. We see that similarly, _malloc_zone_malloc was called almost exclusively by the same pbkdf2 function.
Thus, using the information in this view, we can tell that our hash computation from the user’s password accounts not only for the 51.8% from above but also for all CPU time in the top 3 most sampled functions since the calls to _sha1_block_data_order and _malloc_zone_malloc were made on behalf of the pbkdf2 function.
At this point, it is very clear that the password based hash generation should be the target of our optimization. Thankfully, you’ve fully internalized the benefits of asynchronous programming and you realize that the work to generate a hash from the user’s password is being done in a synchronous way and thus tying down the event loop. This prevents us from working on other incoming requests while computing a hash.
To remedy this issue, you make a small modification to the above handlers to use the asynchronous version of the pbkdf2 function:
A new run of the ab benchmark above with the asynchronous version of your app yields:
Concurrency Level: 20
Time taken for tests: 12.846 seconds
Complete requests: 250
Failed requests: 0
Keep-Alive requests: 250
Total transferred: 50250 bytes
HTML transferred: 500 bytes
Requests per second: 19.46 [#/sec] (mean)
Time per request: 1027.689 [ms] (mean)
Time per request: 51.384 [ms] (mean, across all concurrent requests)
Transfer rate: 3.82 [Kbytes/sec] received
Percentage of the requests served within a certain time (ms)
100% 1079 (longest request)
Your app is now serving about 20 requests per second, roughly 4 times more than it was with the synchronous hash generation. Additionally, the average latency is down from the 4 seconds before to just over 1 second.
Hopefully, through the performance investigation of this (admittedly contrived) example, you’ve seen how the V8 tick processor can help you gain a better understanding of the performance of your Node.js applications.
The Buffer() and new Buffer() constructors are not recommended for use due to security and usability concerns. Please use the new Buffer.alloc(), Buffer.allocUnsafe(), or Buffer.from() construction methods instead.
Finding problematic bits of code using grep
Just run grep -nrE '[^a-zA-Z](Slow)?Buffer\s*\(' --exclude-dir node_modules.
It will find all the potentially unsafe places in your own code (with some considerably unlikely exceptions).
Finding problematic bits of code using Node.js 8
If you’re using Node.js ≥ 8.0.0 (which is recommended), Node.js exposes multiple options that help with finding the relevant pieces of code:
–trace-warnings will make Node.js show a stack trace for this warning and other warnings that are printed by Node.js.
–trace-deprecation does the same thing, but only for deprecation warnings.
–pending-deprecation will show more types of deprecation warnings. In particular, it will show the Buffer() deprecation warning, even on Node.js 8.
You can set these flags using environment variables:
$ export NODE_OPTIONS='--trace-warnings --pending-deprecation'
$ cat example.js
const foo = new Buffer('foo');
$ node example.js
(node:7147) [DEP0005] DeprecationWarning: The Buffer() and new Buffer() constructors are not recommended for use due to security and usability concerns. Please use the new Buffer.alloc(), Buffer.allocUnsafe(), or Buffer.from() construction methods instead.
at showFlaggedDeprecation (buffer.js:127:13)
at new Buffer (buffer.js:148:3)
at Object. (/path/to/example.js:2:13)
[... more stack trace lines ...]
Press the “Open Folder” button in the sidebar, or the Open folder… link in the Welcome page. Both will trigger the file picker view. Choose one folder where you have source code, or even just text files, and open it.
VS Code will show that folder content in your view:
On the right hand side, the empty view shows some commands to perform some quick operations, and their keyboard shortcut. If you select a file on the left, that file will open on the main panel: Once you start editing it, you’ll notice a dot will appear next to the file name in the tab, and in the sidebar as well: Pressing CMD+P will show you a quick file picker to easily move in files on large projects: You can hide the sidebar that hosts the file using the shortcut CMD+B.
The second icon in the toolbar is “Search”. Clicking it shows the search interface: You can click the icons to make the search case sensitive, to match whole words (not substrings), and to use a regular expression for the search string. To perform the search, press enter. Clicking the ▷ symbol on the left enables the search and replace tool. Clicking the 3 dots shows a panel that lets you just include some specific kind of files, and exclude other files:
The Source Control tab is enabled by clicking the third icon in the toolbar.
Git & Visual Studio Code
Visual Studio Code includes integration with Git out of the box. In this case the folder we opened does not have source control initialized. Clicking the first icon on top, with the Git logo, allows us to initialize the Git repository: The U beside each file means that it’s been updated since the last commit (since we never did a commit in the first place, all files are updated). Create the first commit by writing a text message and pressing Cmd-Enter, or clicking the ✔︎ icon on top. I usually set this to automatically stage the changes when I commit them. The 3 dots icon, when clicked, offers lots of options for interacting with Git:
VS Code has an integrated terminal. You can activate it from the menu View ➤ Integrated Terminal, or using CMD+\` and it’ll open with your default shell. This is very convenient because in modern web development you almost always have some npm or yarn process running in the background. You can create more than one terminal tab, and show them one next to the other, and also stack them to the right rather than in the bottom of the window:
The Command Palette
The Command Palette is an extremely very powerful tool in your arsenal. You can enable it by clicking View ➤ Command Palette, or using CMD+SHIFT+P A modal window will appear at the top, offering you various options, depending on which plugins you have installed, and which commands you used last.
Common operations to perform are:
Extensions: Install Extensions
Preferences: Color Theme to change the color theme (I prefer a darker theme)
Format Document – which formats code automatically
you can activate any of those by starting typing, and the autocomplete functionality will show you the one you want. Remember when you typed CMD+P to see the list of files, before? That’s a shortcut to a specific feature of the Command Palette. Here are others:
Ctrl-Shift-Tab shows you the active files
Ctrl-G opens the command palette to let you enter a line number to go to
CMD+SHIFT+Oshows the list of symbols found in the current file
You can switch the color theme used by clicking CMD-k + CMD-t, or by invoking the Preferences: Color Theme command. This will display the list of themes installed: you can click one, or move with the keyboard, and VS Code will show you a preview. Click enter to apply the theme:
The Theme is just one customization you can make. Sidebar icons that are assigned to a file are also a big part of a great user experience. You can change those by going to Preferences ➤ File Icon Theme. The Ayu theme comes with its own icons theme, which perfectly matches the theme colors: All the customizations we’ve made so far, the theme and the icon theme, are saved to the user preferences. Go to Preferences ➤ Settings (also reachable via CMD-,) to see them: The view shows the default settings on the left, for an easy reference, and the overridden settings on the right. You can see the name of the theme and the icon theme we set up, in workbench.colorTheme and workbench.iconTheme. I zoomed in using CMD-+, and this setting was saved as well to window.zoomLevel, so the next time VS Code starts up, it remembers my choice for zooming. You can decide to apply some setting globally, in User Settings, or relative to a workspace, in Workspace settings. Most of the times these settings are automatically added by extensions or by the VS Code itself, but in some cases you’ll directly edit them in this place.
User settings can be overridden in Workspace settings. They take precedence, and are useful for example when you use a project that has linting rules different from all the other projects you use, and you don’t want to edit your favorite settings just for it. You create a workspace from an existing project by clicking the File ➤ Save Workspace as… menu. The currently opened folder will be enabled as the workspace main folder. The next time you open VS code, or you switch project, instead of opening a folder, you open a workspace, and that will automatically open the folder containing your code, and it will remember all the settings you set specific to that workspace. In addition to having workspace-level settings, you can disable extensions for a specific workspace. You can just work with folders until you have a specific reason for wanting a workspace. One good reason is the ability to have multiple, separate root folders. You can use the File ➤ Add Folder to Workspace to add a new root folder, which can be located anywhere in the filesystem, but will be shown along with the other existing folder you had.
How to edit in Visual Studio Code shown below.
Errors & Warnings
When you open a file you will see on the right a bar with some colors. Those colors indicate some issues in your code. For example here’s what I see right now:
Visual Studio Command Line
When you install VS Code, the code command is available globally in your command line. This is very useful to start the editor and open a new window with the content of the current folder, with code..
will create a new window. A useful thing that’s not always knows is that VS Code can quickly show the diff between two files, with code
--diff file1.js file2.js.
Solving High Usage CPU Issues
When running into an issue of high CPU usage, and spinning fans, with a project with lots of files under node_modules.. We’ll include this configuration and things will be normal again:
The Github Pull Requests extension from Github allows you to view and interact with your Pull Requests directly from within VS Code.
Angular 7 Snippets
This extension offers TypeScript and HTML snippets and code examples for Angular 2,4,5,6 & 7.
The Slack Chat extension for VS Code embeds a chat window in the editor. This is useful for chatting during Live Share sessions. It also has the added benefit of being able to start a Live Share session with the “/live share” command. Slack Extension
Share Your Localhost
VS Code Live Share enables you to share any TCP process on your computer with people who are currently connected to your Live Share session. Choose “Share Server” from the Command Palette and select a port to share.
App Service is Azure’s Platform as a Service (PaaS) that let’s you deploy and scale web, mobile, and API apps. Use the Azure App Service extension for VS Code to quickly create, manage, and deploy your websites.
Refactor To ES6
VS Code has built-in support for editing style sheets in CSS .css, SCSS .scss and Less .less. In addition, you can install an extension for greater functionality.
A content delivery network, or content distribution network is a geographically distributed network of proxy servers and their data centers. The goal is to distribute service spatially relative to end-users to provide high availability and high performance.
In other words, CDN’s improve site speed by reducing the amount of bandwith on a server, increasing the performance of your website.
My favorite free plugins that are essential for your next website are:
AMP For WP
Contact 7 Forms
Child Theme Configurator
Head & Footer Code
UpdraftPlus WordPress Backup Plugin
My favorite plugin to boost Search Engine Optimization is Yoast SEO; is the most complete WordPress SEO plugin. It handles the technical optimization of your site and assists with optimizing your content.
This caching plugin generates static html files from your dynamic WordPress blog. After a html file is generated your web server will serve that file instead of processing the comparatively heavier and more expensive WordPress PHP scripts
The Contact 7 form plugin manages multiple contact forms, plus you can customize the form and the mail contents flexibly with simple markup.
Child Theme Configurator
Want to create a Child Theme? This is a fast and easy to use utility that allows you to analyze any theme for common problems, create a child theme and customize it beyond the options of the Customizer.
Head & Footer Code
Easily add code to the header and footer of your website. This plugin allows developers to add code in each page, blog post, or custom page.
Leave reviews on your blog posts – Schema Review is an extension for the Schema plugin, it extends Schema functionality by adding schema.org review and rating Structured Data with functionality for Editors and Authors.
UpdraftPlus WordPress Backup Plugin
Backup into the cloud directly to Dropbox, Google Drive, Amazon S3 (or compatible), UpdraftVault, Rackspace Cloud, FTP, DreamObjects, Openstack Swift, and email.
The Markup (JSON-LD) plugin allows you to include schema.org JSON-LD syntax markup on your website.
Have 2-4 reasonably complete projects that you can show off your skill set, along with experiments or tutorials you have done. Have a reasonably regular commit frequency (two a week on average is more than enough – don’t worry about missing a few weeks every now and then but the more activity the better overall). Bonus points for providing meaningful contributions to other projects.
Inside one of your flagship projects ensure the code is clean and readable, documentations such as a README helps a lot. Good commit messages that show your project evolving helps show you know how to use git effectively. Live demos can also help (Netlify, Firebase or Github Pages are good hosting for static sites). Additionally, the better a project you have and the more proud of them you are then the better it looks. A couple of good projects are much better then lots of incomplete or unfinished projects. However, presence of these do not detract from the profile, only the lack of a good one does – so definitely put more effort into that, but don’t be afraid to include your half complete experiments if you have any.
Projectswill look better to an employer if they are similar to the tech stack they use, but don’t worry too much about matching it exactly. Additionally, If you want to build a project then try to use/learn the stack for the companies you are applying to but don’t go out of your way to squeeze in all the tech they use. It’s is far better to use things fit for purpose than match what they want.
Github Profile Overview
In conclusion, the most important aspect is that you should be proud to show it off and enjoy working on the projects it contains. This will encourage you to contribute more to it which looks better overall.
My PWA score was provided by Lighthouse. Lighthouse is an open-source, automated tool for improving the quality of web pages. You can run it against any web page, public or requiring authentication. It has audits for performance, accessibility, progressive web apps, and more.
SEO – Progressive Web App
I earned an SEO score of 100/100 according to Google Lighthouse. My PWA is mobile friendly, has valid Structured Data, and is indexed by Google.
Accessibility – Progressive Web App
These checks highlight opportunities to improve the accessibility of a web app. Only a subset of accessibility issues can be automatically detected so manual testing is also encouraged.
Elements Have Discernible Names
Elements Describe Contents Well
Color Contrast Is Satisfactory
Elements Are Well Structured
Page Specifies Valid Language
Meta Tags Used Properly
Best Practices – Progressive Web App
Google Lighthouse provided a list of the best practices that were used when creating ebitcoins.app.
Avoids requesting the notification permission on page load
What are Progressive Web Apps?
Progressive Web Apps (PWAs) are web applications that are regular web pages or websites, but can appear to the user like traditional applications or native mobile applications. According to Google, Progressive Web Applications are user experiences that have the reach of the web, and are:
When launched from the user’s home screen, service workers enable a Progressive Web App to load instantly, regardless of the network state.
53% of users will abandon a site if it takes longer than 3 seconds to load! And once loaded, users expect them to be fast—no janky scrolling or slow-to-respond interfaces.
Progressive Web Apps are installable and live on the user’s home screen, without the need for an app store. They offer an immersive full screen experience with help from a web app manifest file and can even re-engage users with web push notifications.
Additionally, The Web App Manifest allows you to control how your app appears and how it’s launched. You can specify home screen icons, the page to load when the app is launched, screen orientation, and even whether or not to show the browser chrome.
Why build a Progressive Web App?
In addition, Building a high-quality Progressive Web App has substantial positive benefits, making it easy to delight your users, grow engagement and increase conversions.
Some additional benefits of PWAs are:
Worthy of being on the home screen
Work reliably, no matter the network conditions
Examples of Progressive Web Apps
Lastly, some great examples of Progressive Web Apps (PWAs) include:
You should always protect all of your websites with HTTPS, even if they don’t handle sensitive communications.
Additionally, HTTPS helps prevent intruders from tampering with the communications between your websites and your users’ browsers. Intruders include intentionally malicious attackers, and legitimate but intrusive companies, such as ISPs or hotels that inject ads into pages.
HTTPS is the future of the web
Powerful, new web platform features, such as taking pictures or recording audio with getUserMedia(), enabling offline app experiences with service workers, or building progressive web apps, require explicit permission from the user before executing.
Setting the passive option on your touch and wheel event listeners can improve scrolling performance
One known cause of poor performance is the use of document.write() inside pages, specifically those uses that inject scripts. As innocuous as the following looks, it can cause real issues for users.
Cross-Origin Resource Sharing (CORS)
Cross-Origin Resource Sharing (CORS) is a mechanism that uses additional HTTP headers to tell a browser to let a web application running at one origin (domain) have permission to access selected resources from a server at a different origin.
Furthermore, A web application makes a cross-origin HTTP request when it requests a resource that has a different origin (domain, protocol, and port) than its own origin.
Avoids Requesting The Geolocation Permission On Page Load
Users are mistrustful of or confused by pages that automatically request their location on page load. Rather than automatically requesting a user’s location on page load, tie the request to a user’s gesture, such as a tapping a “Find Stores Near Me” button.
In conclusion, make sure that the gesture clearly and explicitly expresses the need for the user’s location.
The <!DOCTYPE html> declaration is used to inform a website visitor’s browser that the document being rendered is an HTML document.
While not actually an HTML element itself, every HTML document should being with a DOCTYPE declaration to be compliant with HTML standards.
Avoids Requesting The Notification Permission On Page Load
As explained in What Makes a Good Notification, good notifications are timely, relevant, and precise. If your page asks for permission to send notifications on page load, those notifications may not be relevant to your users or precise to their needs.
Front-End Web Developer Skills & Job Titles in 2018: A front-end developer is typically only on a team that designs and develops web sites, web applications, or native applications running from web technologies.
The job title given to a developer who comes from a computer science, engineering, background and is using these skills to work with front-end technologies. This role typically requires a computer science degree and years of software development experience.
When “Testing” or “QA” is included in the job title, this will denote that the developer has extensive experience testing and managing software that involves unit testing, functional testing, user testing, and A/B testing.
Front-End Dev. Ops
When “DevOps” is included in the job title, this will denote that the developer has extensive experience with software development practices pertaining to collaboration, integration, deployment, automation, and measurement.
Front-End Accessibility Expert
When the word “Accessibility” is included in the job title, this will denote that the developer has extensive experience crafting front-end technologies that support accessibility requirements and standards.
Front-End SEO Expert
Search engine optimization involves making small modifications to parts of your website.
When viewed individually, these changes might seem like incremental improvements, but when combined with other optimizations, they could have a noticeable impact on your site’s user experience and performance in organic search results.
When the word “SEO” is included in the job title, this will denote that the developer has extensive experience crafting front-end technologies towards an SEO strategy.
Web/Front-End User Interface (aka UI) Developer/Engineer
When the word “Interface” or “UI” is included in the job title, this will denote that the developer should posses interaction design skills in addition to front-end developer skills or front-end engineering skills.
Front-End Web Designer
When the word “Designer” is included in the job title, this will denote that the designer will posses front-end skills (i.e., HTML & CSS) but also professional design (Visual Design and Interaction Design) skills.
Front-End Web Development Skills
Here’s a list of skills that Front-end Developers and Software Engineers should be familiar with.
Task Runners, Build Tools, Process Automation Tools
Responsive Web Design
Charts / Graphs
Code Quality Testing
Code Coverage Testing
Code Complexity Analysis
Command Line / CLI
Single Page Applications
XHR Requests (aka AJAX)
Browser Developer Tools
Hypertext Markup Language, or HTML, was primarily designed to provide a means of creating structured scientific documents.
To build websites, you should know about HTML — the fundamental technology used to define the structure of a webpage. HTML is used to specify whether your web content should be recognized as a paragraph, list, heading, link, image, multimedia player, form, or one of many other available elements or even a new element that you define.
Cascading Style Sheets, also known as CSS, is a declarative language that controls how webpages look in the browser.
The browser applies CSS style declarations to selected elements to display them properly. A style declaration contains the properties and their values, which determine how a webpage looks.
Responsive Web Design
The use of mobile devices to surf the web is growing at an astronomical pace, but unfortunately much of the web isn’t optimized for those mobile devices.
Mobile devices are often constrained by display size and require a different approach to how content is laid out on the screen.
Responsive web design is made up from 3 basic ingredients.
Flexbox Grid will allow you to quickly manage the layout, alignment, and sizing of grid columns, navigation, components, and more with a full suite of responsive flexbox utilities.
A multitude of different screen sizes exist across phones, “phablets,” tablets, desktops, game consoles, TVs, and even wearables. Screen sizes are always changing, so it’s important that your site can adapt to any screen size, today or in the future.
An application programming interface (API) is a set of tools, definitions, and protocols for building application software. It lets your product or service communicate with other products and services without having to know how they’re implemented.
Technically, API stands for Application Programming Interface. APIs as a way to serve your customers. At some point or another, most large companies have built APIs for their customers, or for internal use.
Curated List of Links for Front-end Web Developers
Desktop progressive web apps can be ‘installed’ on the user’s device much like native apps. They’re fast. Feel integrated because they launched in the same way as other apps, and run in an app window, without an address bar or tabs.
They’re reliable because service workers can cache all of the assets they need to run. And they create an engaging experience for users.
Progressive Web App Checklist
Progressive Web Apps (PWA) are reliable, fast, and engaging, although there are many things that can take a PWA from a baseline to exemplary experience.
To help teams create the best possible experiences we’ve put together a checklist which breaks down all the things we think it takes to be a Baseline PWA, and how to take that a step further with an Exemplary PWA by providing a more meaningful offline experience, reaching interactive even faster and taking care of many more important details.
I’m a professional Front-End Web Developer & UX/UI Designer in Omaha, Nebraska.